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In the period of 1996-2002 the organizational basis of the educational system of the Republic of Kalmykia was made by the laws of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kalmykia "On education", fundamental, most important documents of the President of the Republic of Kalmykia, Government and legislative acts of the People's Khural (Parliament) of the Republic of Kalmykia. They are:

Decrees of the President:

  • 14.08.1995. #181 "On the methodic system of extending didactic units by the academician P. Erdniev"
  • 02.10.1995. #217 "On the state support of the educational system of the Republic of Kalmykia";
  • 23.09.1996. #152 "On the state support for studying of the Kalmyk folk epic "Jangar";
  • 27.04.1998. #83 "On 350 anniversary of the national Todo Bichig (Clear Script) writing and 400-year anniversary of the outstanding scientist, the creator of Kalmyk writing Zaya Pandit";
  • 07.05.1998. #87 "On measures on further revival and development of Kalmyk language";
  • 05.11.1998. #203 "On measures for gradual introduction of the reformed orthography of Kalmyk language";
  • 10.06.2001. #93 "On problems of Kalmyk language";
  • 04.07.2001. #63-rp "On the development of national education system in the republic".

The law of the Republic of Kalmykia "On languages of the people of the Republic of Kalmykia", approved by the People's Khural (Parliament) of the Republic of Kalmykia in October 1999.

A special concern was given to the development of the innovative trends in education. In 1995-1996 the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kalmykia #181 approved the activity program of the Ministry of Education to implement the methodic system of extending didactic units by the academician P. Erdniev. In the same perios approved was the program "Children of Kalmykia" that includes subprograms "Orphans", "Handicapped children", "Gifted children". The realization of the decree #129 "On the state support of the chess movement in the republic" also started on September 1, 1995: educational institutions introduced a new subject "Chess" as a mandatory element of the national and regional component.

In order to provide support to intellectually gifted children the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kalmykia takes measures on broadening of the school Olympiads movement.

In 2001-2002, 32 educational institutions joined in large-scale federal experiment to develop the new structure and contents of intermediate school education.

A substantial attention was given to the embedding of innovation process into the programs of federal and international level. So, the republic's program "Gifted children" has the status of federal regional program since 1999; every year the students and teachers of the republic take part in the Russian-American program "Freedom support act" organized by the American Council of teachers of Russian language and literature under support from the Ministry of Education of Russian Federation.

In order to raise the quality of the general education a number of innovative educational institutions was created in the republic: 3 lyceums (Elista Lyceum, Elista Technical Lyceum, Elista Pedagogic Lyceum), 5 gymnasias (National, Elista Classical, Elista Multiple-Discipline, Ketchenerovskaya, Komsomolskaya).

Realization, improvement and development of the normative legal basis, corrections of documents in conformity with the Law of the Russian Federation "On education" are the priority directions of improvement of the republic's educational system, they will get their further development in 2002-2003.

National educational system

It started in 1993 with the opening of 24 national classes. The national system of education since then grew into a whole network of national educational institutions.

So, in the present time in Kalmykia there are different models and types of national educational institutions:

  • national groups;
  • national kindergartens;
  • national primary schools;
  • national progymnasia;
  • national gymnasia;
  • schools with deeper teaching of Kalmyk language.

In pre-school educational institutions there are now national groups in all 5 age categories. Children not only learn their mother language but get acquainted with the history, culture, household traditions, learn the elements of applied arts, crafts, national sports and traditional games. The program of kindergartens includes the ethnic regional component, i.e. learning the culture and traditions of Kalmyks and peoples living in the republic.

In order to promote the ethnic culture, spiritual wealth and language among the young generations the republic's Olympiads in mother language and literature, contests "Young erudites", "Tsagan bothn", "Jangrin achner " are organized.

The school year 1995-1996 became historical in its own way, the year of first graduating of national classes on the schools of the republic. A special program of practical measures was prepared, approved and confirmed by the President's Administration and the Government of the Republic of Kalmykia. These measures include complex monitoring of teaching in the national classes, preparation of special certificates for the primary school graduates in native language and praise letters for students, fulfilling stage 1 with "excellent" and "good" grades.

Provision of support and incentives for the teachers of national classes stipulated the development of the Act on the Republican Contest "Teacher of a national class", 15 teachers of the republic, teachers of national classes and Kalmyk language were awarded by the President of the Republic of Kalmykia with a tour to Shenjan-Uigur Autonomous District of China in July 2002.

In order to promote and preserve the native language the following has been held:

  • Republican contest of compositions in Kalmyk dedicated to the jubilees of D. Kugultinov (75 and 80 years);
  • Olympiads in Kalmyk language and literature;
  • Contest of class rooms of Kalmyk language.
  • Republican contest, dedicated to the jubilee of the People's Artist of Russia g. Rokchinsky;
  • Republican Olympiad among the secondary school students in history and culture of Kalmykia;
  • Republican "Jangariada" among the secondary school students;
  • Republican contest of compositions dedicated to the 75th year jubilee of the People's Writer of Kalmykia A. Badmaev;
  • Republican folklore and ethnographic festival among the secondary school students.

The Ministry of Education and Science held 3 international seminars under the supervision of UNESCO, over 30 international and republican scientific conferences on the problems of language, ethnic pedagogics and ethnic psychology. They include:

  • International scientific conference "Ethnic pedagogics and ethnic psychology in the modern system of national education and upbringing ",
  • International seminar "Languages of the peoples of Russia: development prospects",
  • International scientific conference dedicated to the 360th anniversary of Ayuka Khan "Material and spiritual bases of the Kalmyk state system within the Russian state ".

Development of the national education system is an integral part of the spiritual renovation of the republic, formation of the civil society and jural state. This creative process has its own special value for our republic, people undergone the tragedy of the deportation, genocide, it is an agent facilitating the revival of national culture, attraction of the younger generation to the spiritual values, traditions and customs of the ancestors.

Upbringing and additional education

In 1996-2002 Kalmykia witnessed a purposeful activity oriented to the creation of conditions for the development of spiritual and moral orientation of the younger generation on the basis of common to all mankind and domestic values, assisting students in the life determination, moral, civil and professional growth.

This called forth the necessity to solve the tasks of the complex system of upbringing as an integral component of educational process in the following directions:

  • Revival of patriotic attitude, bringing up the students in the ethnic traditions of the peoples of Kalmykia;
  • Humanization, psychologization and humanitarization of upbringing;
  • Jural upbringing and education forming the legal consciousness, legal culture; upbringing of tolerance in the students;
  • Promotion of healthy way of life, prophylactics of drug abuse, pernicious habits;
  • System of uninterruptible ecological, artistic and aesthetic, physical education;
  • Development of the additional education.

The priority direction of in the ecological training is the ecologization of the educational process, development of the training, research, experimental activity of the students.

There are many children's technical and artistic institutions and organizations in the republic.

In order to raise the teaching skills of the organizers of training activities, their professional qualification the department of upbringing and additional education of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kalmykia held the seminars for the management of the educational institutions on the upbringing of children and juveniles issues, organization of summer recreation.

The Ministry of Education and Science of the republic of Kalmykia developed a program "Formation of tolerant consciousness and prevention of extremism in the Republic of Kalmykia" oriented to the promotion of civil ethics and religious tolerance.

Primary professional education

In 1996-2002 a system of primary professional education formed on principles of regionalization and municipalization formed in Kalmykia. It practically fully meets the necessities of the population.

During the last three years the system of primary professional education underwent quantitative changes: new educational institutions were established on the basis of the existing professional schools: center of uninterruptible professional education, professional lyceums. In 2002 one of the professional lyceums was reorganized into the Kalmyk State College of Technology and Economics.

The scope of professions and specializations offered by the professional schools annually accounts for approximately 30 titles.

The system of primary professional education keeps orientation to the laws of market economy, makes corrections of professions depending on the changes of situation in the labor market.

The main criterion of quality for the institutions of professional education is employment of graduates and their professional orientation.

Secondary professional education

In the republic there are 7 institutions of the secondary professional education purposefully and successfully realizing the state educational policies to meet the rights of the citizen for professional education and social protection of students.

Elista Pedagogy College of Kanukov is now a training complex "Lyceum-college-university". Over 2000 graduates left the college for the last 6 years.

Kalmyk Medicine College of T. Khakhlynova is the only institution in the republic preparing medical workers for health institutions. The college has a well-equipped training material base: 38 classrooms, 12 lecture halls in the medicine institutions of Elista, there is a computer room. The library stocks have grown by 3 times during the last 6 years.

Over 2000 specialists have graduated from the college, 80% of them work in the health care institutions of the republic.

Kalmyk State College of Finance and Economy meets the necessity of the students in economic, legal, commercial knowledge and skills.

The improvement of quality of training specialists requires the development of methodic research work, for the last several years the college is working on the implementation of the humanistic concept and technology of personality-oriented education, takes part in the national experiment of remote training.

Elista Automobile and Motor Road College is another secondary professional education institution.

In conformity with the concept of uninterruptible education in 1998 Elista Automobile and Motor Road College introduced a lyceum department offering the general courses, its students graduate with such specializations as "PC operator" and "automobile repair specialist".

The college is proud for its highly qualified staff of trainers, 5 trainers have the title "Honored trainer of the Republic of Kalmykia". At the present time the Elista Automobile and Motor Road College is attended by 2000 taking 10 specializations.

Higher education

Kalmyk State University

The Kalmyk State University is the republic's main center of higher education. The training work is carried out by 454 instructors, including 226 with post-graduate degrees and 37 PhDs.

The Kalmyk university has good student exchange relations with Mongolia, China and other countries. The university takes part in the joint international programs with many universities and scientific centers around the world.

In 1995 the Astrakhan Technical University and Kalmyk State University initiated the establishment of the Association on Universities of Caspian States. 22 universities of Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenia, Kazakhstan and Iran became its members. The objective of the association is the creation of unified information, cultural, scientific and educational field in the region. This step was inspired by the concern of all the participants for the future of Caspian Sea. The universities that joined the association focus on strengthening of the mutual understanding between the peoples of the region on the basis of a better information exchange in all fields, preservation of the region as the zone of peace and good neighborly cooperation. A special attention is given to the ecological problems of Caspian Sea, preservation and regeneration of biological resources.

There are also 8 licensed branches of the higher educational institutions of Russia in the Republic of Kalmykia. The first two of them were:

The Kalmyk Branch of the Moscow Open Social University was created in 1993 as the Kalmyk department of North Caucasus branch of the university, later on in 1998 it received the branch status.

The Kalmyk Branch of the Moscow Open Social University offers courses in two majors: law and psychology.

The Kalmyk Branch of the Moscow Academy of Finance and Law was created to meet certain programs primarily in the training of economists and managers. In 2002 the first graduates have successfully carried out graduation research papers in the head university, i.e. Moscow Academy of Finance and Law.

In the period from 1999 to 2002 the following branches of higher educational institutions have been opened in the Republic of Kalmykia:

  • Kalmys Branch of the Russian State Humanities University preparing specialists in history and archive studies, document studies, applied computer science, finance and credit, museums;
  • Kalmyk Branch of the Moscow State Open Pedagogy University preparing specialists for education sector;
  • Kalmyk Branch of the Moscow Academy of Economy and Law offering courses in the field of law and economy;
  • Institute of Economy and Law under the Russian Plekhanov Academy of Economy and Kalmyk State University offering courses in the field of law and economy;
  • The Brach of the Taganrog University of Radio and Technology preparing engineers and the field of electronics and computer science;
  • Kalmyk Branch of Sr. Petersburg Institute of Management and Economy preparing management staff in various fields.