Elista - the capital of Kalmykia
Elista, the capital of Kalmykia, is located in the South West of the republic in the wide valley to the South from the Yergeninskaya Height.
According to the data of the State Statistics Committee of the Republic of Kalmykia for January 1, 2002 was 109.9 thousand.
By January 1, 2002 the area of Elista was 39657 hectares of which 21045 hectares is the city itself and 18612 hectares is the conjoining territories.
The transport network of the city is made by 300 kilometers of automobile roads, including 220 km of asphalt coated and 80 km of unpaved roads. The three highways crossing Elista have federal status: Elista - Volgograd, Elista - Makhachkala, Elista - Astrakhan.
The external transport communication is performed by the railroad line Stavropol - Elista, motorways Stavropol - Elista - Volgograd, Elista - Astrakhan and Volgograd - Elista - Kizlyar and the airlines.
The analysis of Elista population growth indicated that the largest growth rates occurred in the recent years. The growth of the population in 1996 made 6.3 percent.
The demographic changes are conditioned by the incoming migration flow from other regions and rural areas of the republic.
One of the priorities in the development of the city is residential construction and construction of social objects.
In the last six years the amount of contractual works reached 1.5 billion rubles, this amount in 2001 became 10 times higher than in 1996. Completed were over 269 thousand of residence areas from all the financing sources.
The residential construction was activated by the adoption of the Presidential Program "Dwelling 2001". The city hall carried out the necessary works aim at the realization of the program. The Elista City Council prepared and adopted the municipal targeted program "Dwelling" that marked the main directions of fulfilling the provision of residential areas to the population of Elista. The program stipulates the attraction of all the financing sources, the development of the mortgage crediting, individual residential construction, construction of housing to various degrees of completeness, mansard construction.
The Elista City Council have established the Investments and Mortgage Service in order to create the organizational, economic and information condition for solving the questions connected with the investment activities in municipal education as well as coordination of City Hall activities in the sphere of mortgage crediting.
The main directions in the work of the Service are connected with the coordination of investment issues, realization of mortgage crediting, development of legal basis for the investment tenders and operative control in realization of investment projects.
Realization of the "Dwelling" program objectives required the creation of the organization to become its principal executor. The experience of the other regions and the analysis of the current situation allowed the service to develop the documents required for the creation of such organization. On May 20, 2001 a non-profit fund, the City Fund for the Development of Mortgage Housing was created to become the main executor of the program.
May 2001 was marked by the beginning of active work in construction of residential objects and attraction of financial resources to the residential construction.
The main condition in granting apartments with the installments of payment is the payment of 50 percent of housing cost and 2 guarantor and the corresponding overall family income.
The advantages of the program are:
- Cost of 1 square meter of housing is below the market price (uncompleted construction);
- Payment by installments up to 10 years;
- Inflation ratio is excluded;
- The credit rate is 10 percent.
All the new construction must be organically inscribed in the architectural look of Elista which is the recent years takes up ethnic color.
The city is carrying out the gradual greening and municipal improvements, laid are new parks, repaired roads, flower beds and loans, pavement and lighting of walkways.
It is necessary to note that Elista is the largest city in the republic inhabited by 31.2 % of Kalmykia's population. Elista accounts for 30 % of republic's enterprises' and organizations' capital assets, 32 % of capital investments, 45.1 % in the total industrial output, over 70 % of retail trade and catering. Elista carries capital city functions and is a political and administrative, cultural and organizational center. It was legally acknowledged in the decree by the President of the Republic of Kalmykia "On the city of Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia" dated December 02, 1997. Realization of this decree have considerable increased the legal, social and economic status of Kalmykia's capital.
The program of the social and economic development determines the prospectives of the development of Elista, reformation of the particular sectors of city economy, increase of the life standards.
The program of social and economic development of Elista for 2001-2005 stipulates the plans of measures to support small and middle enterprises, shows calculations of the population's demand, economic effect of the production development, provides basis for the development of the industries.
There are 23 industrial enterprises in the territory of Elista. They represent the following sectors: oil extraction, power production, machinery building, wood processing, construction materials, light, food and printing industries.
The structure of the industrial production by sectors is characterized by the following data: oil extraction- 70.5%, printing - 1.3%, construction materials - 0.7%.
The City Hall of Elista developed the program of the prospective development of the industrial production for years 2001-2005, is was approved by the decision of the Elista City Council. The program defines the priority directions for the development of industrial production by supporting the modern competitive plants and types of economic activities, worked out the mechanism of program's realization by offering state contracts, system of crediting.
In 2001 the enterprises of light industry received the total amount of 3043.0 thousand rubles of commodity credit. This support contributed to the growth tendency in the light industry production.
Effectiveness of the republic's economy was greatly influenced by the development of private entrepreneurship. So far the highest potential belongs to the small businesses as it is more flexible to meet the changing market conditions.
The number of small enterprises in Elista is 2713 or 23,6 % of the total number of enterprises, registered as tax payers and carrying out business in the territory of Elista.
In the period from 1996 to the first half of 2002 the number of small enterprises in Elista grew by 2.5 times.
The main educational priorities in the schools of the city are: development of the national educational system, studies of the Kalmyk people's epic "Jangar", application of the unique technology "Enlargement of the didactic units" by P. Erdniev, development of chess education.
The unique educational technology , enlargement of didactic units, developed by P. Erdniev is actively implemented in more than 50 regions of Russian Federation. The followers of professor Erdniev work in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Krasnodar, Stavropol and other cities of Russia.
Elista is also a science center of the region concentrating post secondary and secondary educational institutions, Kalmyk State University.
Education of the city is 10 secondary special institutions offering instruction to 6892 students, 29 secondary schools, including 7 innovative ones, 2 evening schools, 9 primary schools, 26 children's pre-primary institutions, the Palace of Children's Arts, Children's Olympic Reserve Sport School.
Prizes of Elista students at all-Russian school student's subject Olympiads are the indicators of school achievement level. Former Elista school students attend post secondary educational institutions in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Pyatigorsk, Astrakhan, Volgograd. In the last 10 years 72 students left secondary school with golden medals, 131 were awarded with silver.
In spite of the difficult social and economic situation and inadequate financing the municipal health care institutions managed to save its structure and specialists, did not lower the amounts of health services and constantly perfect the methods and forms of work. Eight treatment and prophylaxis institutions function in Elista. In order to ensure a higher degree of accessibility of medical services to the population four branches of city clinics were opened in the city.
The main objective of the youth policy is the creation of legal, social, economic and organizational conditions for the development of young personality, realization of his creative and physical potential, formation of active life position.
The Elista City Council aids the family and children assistance centers "Itkel", "Itsel", "Buyancha sedkel". Social protection of rights and interests, availability of jobs for minors and youths is one of the main concerns of the city administration and all the prevention services.